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Each encoder implements the specification according to its own algorithms and parameters, which means that the compressed output of different codecs will vary, resulting in variations in quality and efficiency between them. Prior to comparing codec video-quality, it is important to understand that every codec can give a varying degree of quality for a given set of frames within a video sequence. Numerous factors play a role in this variability. First, all codecs have a mechanism that is responsible for determining the bitrate and quality on a per-frame basis.
A difference between VBR and CBR creates a trade-off between a consistent quality over all frames, on the one hand, and a more constant bitrate, which is required for some applications, on the other. Second, some codecs differentiate between different types of frames, such as and non-key frames, differing in their importance to overall visual quality and the extent to which they can be compressed. Third, quality depends on prefiltrations, which are included on all present-day codecs.
Other factors may also come into play. For a sufficiently long clip, it is possible to select sequences that have suffered little from the compression, and sequences that have suffered heavily, especially if has been used, whereby the quality between frames can vary highly due to different amounts of compression needed to achieve a constant bitrate.
So, in a given long clip, such as a full-length movie, any two codecs may perform quite differently on a particular sequence from the clip, while the codecs may be approximately equal or the situation reversed in quality over a wider sequence of frames. Press-releases and amateur forums sometimes select sequences known to favor a particular codec or style of rate-control in reviews. Main article: Objective video evaluation techniques are mathematical models that seek to predict human judgments of picture quality, as often exemplified by the results of subjective quality assessment experiments.
They are based on criteria and metrics that can be measured objectively and automatically evaluated by a computer program. Objective methods are classified based on the availability of an original pristine video signal, which is considered to be of high quality generally not compressed. Subjective video quality [ ].
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Main article: This is concerned with how video is perceived by a viewer, and designates their opinion on a particular video sequence. Subjective video quality tests are quite expensive with regard to time preparation and running and human resources.
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There are many ways of showing video sequences to experts and recording their opinions. A few of them have been standardized, mainly in and. The reason for measuring subjective video quality is the same as for measuring the for audio. Opinions of experts can be averaged, and the average mark is usually given with confidence interval. Additional procedures can be used for averaging. For example, experts who give unstable results may be rejected for instance, if their correlation with average opinion is low. In case of video codecs, this is a very common situation. Codecs often use prefilters such as, deflicking, deshaking, etc.
Denoising and deflicking normally maintain value while increasing visual quality the best slow denoising filters also increase PSNR on medium and high bitrates. Deshaking greatly decreases PSNR, but increases visual quality. Postfilters show similar characteristics — deblocking and deringing maintain PSNR, but increase quality; graining suggested in essentially increases video quality, especially on big plasma screens, but decreases PSNR.
So-called true motion search commonly will not reach minimum SAD values in codec ME, but may result in better visual quality.
Such methods also require more compression time. It is difficult to use long sequences for subjective testing. Commonly, three or four ten-second sequences are used, while full movies are used for objective metrics.
Sequence selection is important — those sequences that are similar to the ones used by developers to tune their codecs are more competitive. Performance comparison [ ] Speed comparison [ ]. For CPUs with low cache such as several of the Intel series. So, for example, codec A being optimized for memory usage — i.
Meanwhile, the same pair of codecs may give opposite results if running on an older computer with reduced memory or cache resources. Profiles support [ ]. Main article: Modern standards define a wide range of features and require very substantial software or hardware efforts and resources for their implementation. Only selected profiles of a standard are typically supported in any particular product. This is very common for H.
The H. This is the profile adopted into and Disc, for example.
The standard also contains four additional all-Intra profiles, which are defined as simple subsets of other corresponding profiles. These are mostly for professional e. Moreover, the standard now also contains three profiles. An accurate comparison of codecs must take the profile variations within each codec into account. Supported rate control strategies [ ].
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